Life continually validates my offered concept about an education and sciences reform in the field of natural sciences which is refusal of division (crushing) of scientific disciplines and transition to integrity (summation) of knowledge. Existing now and continuing every day to go deep division of subjects and sciences is an essential brake of scientific and technical progress. On the contrary, integration of knowledge and training of universal experts in natural sciences open before people truly boundless opportunities for new discoveries.
A few examples that I cited earlier:
- Reform of education in the natural sciences - is necessary or not?
- Atlantis, Hyperborea, Lemuria, Mu – the continents, long ago known to geologists . Once again to a question of need of an education reform in the field of natural science.
Now I want to give you another example, demonstrating what can simultaneous study of astronomy (planetology), geology and folklore give us.
Water-steam cover of the Earth and its role in the life development on the planet
In my book "Battles of Ancient Gods" and the works published on my Websites "Paleocene - Eocene - the Golden Age of mankind" (and here), "Biblical model of the steam- dome above the Earth's atmosphere ..." and others I showed that Earth in the Paleogene and the Early Neogene (65.5 - 16 million years ago) had a powerful water-steam cover which shielded it from ultra-violet and hard cosmic rays and reflected the Earth heat back to the Earth's surface. As a result the Earth during Paleocene and Eocene epoch of the Paleogene (65.5-34 million years ago) was a giant all-planetary greenhouse with the very poorly expressed climatic zonality, lack of seasons and the same temperature and vegetation at the equator and in the polar latitudes. Around northern and southern poles rainforests grew and crocodiles and turtles lived there. Speed of rotation of Earth at that time was significantly more, than today, and days could proceed only 8-9 hours.
Based on the findings of air bubbles in amber and traditions of different peoples we can assume that the sky above the earth was initially pink, then a whitish tint and there were no clouds and rains. Steam proceeded from the Earth that led to growth of magnificent and plentiful lush and abundant vegetation on all surface of the planet, including fruit trees which gave several harvests per year. This period in the history of mankind (Second World Era of Aztecs, Satya-Yuga of Indians, "Eternal Spring" of Slavs) I called "Golden Age".
At the boundary of the Eocene and Oligocene (34 million years ago), the Oligocene and Miocene (23 million years ago) and the Early and Middle Miocene (16 million years ago) there were three global catastrophes on the Earth and as result of this huge mass of water poured out of water-steam cover in the earth's surface (in the form of rains during the "forty days and forty nights"). In each new global era the water-steam cover became thinner and thinner and climatic zonality and change of seasons in the world were manifested more clearly. In addition, each time there was a change of the tilt angle of the axis of the Earth rotation and the rotational speed of the planet. Finally, at the boundary of the Early and Middle Miocene, approximately 16 million years ago, the water-steam cover had been completely destroyed, and the blue sky and sun appeared over the ground, atmospheric circulation started, rain began to drop out (rainbow appeared), and considerable areas in the South and the North were held down by ices.
In my work "History repeats itself after 150 million years. About accordance of World Eras and Yugas and about of the existence of reasonable life in the Carboniferous, Ordovician and other periods I assumed that the existence of water-steam covers was a determining factor for emergence and development of life on Earth. Apparently similar water-steam covers existed in the Jurassic, Carboniferous, Ordovician and the Late Riphean Periods.
The image of the Earth surrounded with a water-steam cover. What does it remind?
In my two works "The emancipated female societies: look from time immemorial" and "What conditions were on Earth in the Golden Age? To a question of water-steam cover and global greenhouse" and on this page I posted very interesting picture which shows the Earth surrounded with a water-steam cover. Noteworthy is the location of the continents, testifying that the artist had depicted the Earth that was in the Mesozoic Period.
And now the time came to tell you, for what purpose I started the talking about the water-steam cover.
You already know that it was a determining factor in the origin and development of life on the Earth.
The fact that it was the integral attribute of "the Golden Age" and the Blessed Land, the Happy Land and the Promised Land – you know too.
In my works "5 184 000 - 12 500 years ago – the time of life of modern mankind from world Creation to the Flood", "Creation of modern people at the turn of the Fourth and Fifth World Eras and their relationship with "old people "" I already wrote that thanks to the water-steam cover people (or rather the gods) could live almost eternally.
The fact that during the existence of water-steam cover the Earth rotated with "breakneck" speed you, probably, too already know.
So, what else? What is I have not said before?
Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus - the Earth "portraits" at the beginning of the Paleogene.
Five-ten years ago I very much interested in the planets of the Solar system. I sat many days on the NASA Websites and studied and downloaded photos and materials downloaded from the reports of various research missions and probes. I have accumulated quite a large archive of photographs and materials concerning practically all Solar system planets and their satellites. It includes high-resolution photo of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus and their satellites (Io, Ganymede, Europa, Callisto, Titan, Enceladus, Dione, Triton, etc.). And it just so happened that a few days ago, I decided to see once again photos of Uranus, Neptune, Saturn and Jupiter. And I paid attention that the photos of these planets, especially Uranus, wonderfully remind the picture (placed above) of Earth in the Mesozoic or the Early Paleogene which was covered by water-steam shell. And Uranus and Neptune are similar to the Earth of that distant time even on color.
The obvious similarity between these images forced me to refresh in memory already fairly forgotten information on the giant planets. And I saw that their internal structure and composition can correspond to the structure of the Earth at the beginning of the Paleogene Period when there was "Golden Age" on it.
Certainly, astronomers offer absolutely other models of a structure of giant planets. From the periphery to the center they supposedly have the following shells (it is integrated and generally): - air atmosphere of hydrogen, helium, water, methane, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and other compounds,
- superheated liquid ocean of water, ice, liquid ammonia, methane or hydrogen,
- solid or liquid core of metal, rocks or metal hydrogen. But they themselves recognize that the models of the giant planets are based on the "synthesis of observational data, the application of the laws of thermodynamics and the extrapolation of laboratory data on substances under high pressure and at high temperature," that is, quite simply, on the basis of theoretical calculations and deductions, and therefore may not be entirely accurate.
Below the lower bound of the atmosphere all the planets besides are opaque, and the chemical composition of their inside layers can't be determined by modern methods of observation.
And the fact that models can be not "absolutely" exact is confirmed by the conventional model of the formation of planets of the Solar System from a protoplanetary cloud or nebula which does not explain many regularities of the structure and motion of the planets, including the already mentioned Uranus and Venus, which rotate in opposite side from other planets of the Solar system, also Uranus besides lies on its side. In this we are convinced also by the standard models of the internal structure of the Earth (studied in detail by geophysical methods) and its nearest companion the Moon, which suggest that they have terrestrial (lunar) crust, mantle and core with a uniform temperature increase from the periphery to the center of the Earth (the Moon).
However, this contradicts the legends of different peoples of existence of the inhabited underworld and numerous voids that permeate the Earth on all continents like mazes of moles or earthworms. And on the Moon for more than hundred years strange luminescences and the phenomena proceeding from under its surface are observed. Furthermore, according to the American astronomer C. Sagan and the Russian astronomer A. Deych under the surface of the Moon there can be giant cavities up to 100 cubic km. or more. And they can be quite inhabited as in the story of N. Nosov "Dunno on the Moon."
ти вполне могут быть населены, как в рассказе Н.Носова «Незнайка на Луне».
Comparison of the Earth in the Early Paleogene to Uranus
Well, now I will pass to the noted similarity of the Earth structure at the beginning of the Paleogene Period with a structure of Uranus and other giant planets. "To delineate" the problem, I will be limited with Uranus which is the most similar to Earth covered with a water-steam cover, implying that Saturn, Jupiter and, in particular, Neptune, not too strongly differ from it. This emphasis on Uranus can be explained not only by its greatest similarity to Earth image at the beginning of the Paleogene, but also that unlike Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune, radiating in 1.6-2.6 times more energy, than it reaches them from the Sun, Uranus radiates only in 1.06 ± 0.08 times more energy (0.042 ± 0.047 W/m ²), than receives from the Sun. All giant planets emit thermal energy from subsoil. This has led some researchers to hypothesize the existence of the shell in its atmosphere which reflects back down the heat emitted by Uranus and even suggest the possibility of life on it (there are well-founded hypotheses about life on Jupiter and its moons Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, as well as Neptune's satellite).
It gave the grounds to some researchers to state a hypothesis of existence in its atmosphere of the cover that reflects the thermal energy from the kernel of Uranus back down and even to assume about possibility of life on it. There are well-reasoned hypotheses about life on Jupiter and Jupiter’s moons of Europe, Ganymede and Callisto, and also on Triton, the satellite of Neptune.
Structure and features of orbital motion of Uranus
In 1986 the American spacecraft "Voyager 2" transmitted to the Earth images of Uranus from close range.
So what is the Uranus and by what does its internal structure and composition remind the Earth structure at the beginning of the Paleogene Period?
Uranium moves round the Sun at average distance from it 19.19 a.u. on the orbit close to the circular. The orbital eccentricity is 0.047, inclination of the plane of the orbit of Uranus to the ecliptic plane – 0.77 °. The period of Uranus revolution around the Sun is about 84 earthly years. The period of Uranus rotation around its axis - 17 hours and 24 minutes. The equatorial plane of Uranus is tilted to the plane of its orbit at an angle of 97.86 ° - that is, the planet rotates "lying on one side". This takes the process of the changing of seasons completely different from the other planets of the Solar system.
The diameter of Uranus is about 4 times larger than the Earth (its radius is approximately 25 000 km). Uranus is heavier than the Earth by 14.5 times (however, it is the least massive of giant planets of the Solar system). The average density of Uranus is 1.27 g /cm3. The standard model of Uranus suggests that it consists of three parts: in the center - a stone or rock-iron core, in the middle - ice or liquid shell conventionally called the mantle or ocean, outside - hydrogen-helium gas cover conventionally called the atmosphere. Core is relatively small, weighing approximately 0.55 - 3.7 Earth masses, its radius of 20 - 30 (up to 40) % of the planet radius (5 000 – 9 000 km, according to various sources). Mantle (water-, ammonia-, ammonium hydrosulfide- and methane-ices or liquids) occupies the most part of the planet (40 - 60 % of the total radius or about 10 000 - 15 000 km, according to different data, from 9.3 to 13.5 Earth masses.)
Gas cover (atmosphere) of Uranus
Uranus' atmosphere with a weight about 0.5 - 1.5 Earth masses (according to different data) extends out to 20 - 40 % of the radius of Uranus (4 000 – 8 000 km) and it is conditionally divided into the troposphere and the stratosphere, atmospheric crown extends out to 200 % of the radius of Uranus (50,000 km). Uranus atmosphere contains molecular hydrogen (83-84 % in atmospheric corona, along with molecular hydrogen atomic hydrogen is widely developed), helium (14 - 15 %) and methane (2 - 2.3 %) and a small amount of hydrogen cyanide, ethane, acetylene and carbon monoxide. These hydrocarbons are assumed to be a product of methane photolysis by solar ultraviolet radiation. The spectroscopy also found traces of charcoal and carbonic gases and according to some information, oxygen and water vapor - there is a lot of it in the Uranus atmosphere!
Using various light filters, "Voyager-2" photographed belts of an atmospheric haze (fog) over the South Pole of the planet which during the shooting was located in the center of the sunlit hemisphere. This haze was formed due to the passing of solar ultra-violet rays through the Uranus atmosphere.
The external part of the Uranus atmosphere is very transparent. Somewhere in the upper atmosphere with a temperature of about - 200 °C. "Voyager-2" photographed white cloud formations which consist, most likely, of methane hoarfrost. The presence of methane which absorbs light red part of the spectrum gives the planet its blue-green color.
It is supposed that in the lower part of the Uranus atmosphere (conditionally called troposphere) with power about 350 km and temperature + 40, + 50 °C there are water clouds and clouds of hydrosulphate of ammonium, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.
One of mysteries of Uranus is the same temperature at both poles (facing the sun and in the opposite direction) and the equator - plunged into a gloom and sunlit areas. Temperature measurements of an upper atmosphere of Uranus taken by "Voyager-2" showed that temperature values on both poles and the equator are almost identical! This indicates any mechanism of transfer of heat in the Uranus atmosphere from more heated areas to less heated, and vice versa. The planet atmosphere very effectively levels (due to circulation) temperatures at all latitudes, including in the dark hemisphere. It is suggested that they may be in the atmosphere. Equality of temperatures at poles and the equator forces scientists to look for any special reasons of such meteorology of the Uranus atmosphere. It is suggested that they may be water condensation processes in the atmosphere.
Measurements of thermal streams coming from the planet showed that on external top side turned to the Sun (at the level of pressure of 0.6 bars) the temperature of the Uranus atmosphere is approximately 210 °C. On internal bottom side turned to a core the temperature of the Uranus atmosphere is + 40, + 50 °C. The lowest temperature in the tropopause (transitional layer from the troposphere to the stratosphere) is 224 °C. The lowest recorded temperature of 268 deg. C. was observed at the level of 0.1 bars (above the visible surface of the clouds). Above the temperature rises again, reaching +480, +520 °C. at the height of about 6 000 km. above the clouds and remaining invariable up to the heights of 50 000 km. Such high temperatures of the exosphere (thermosphere and atmospheric crown), consisting mainly of hydrogen, cannot be explained only by the radiation of the Sun because the planet receives them 140 times less than the Earth. There must be some special mechanisms to explain this phenomenon.
In middle and high latitudes the atmosphere of Uranus rotates faster than the deep layers of the planet. This phenomenon is called superrotation and known in the atmosphere of Venus. Atmospheric circulation on Uranus is defined by the Coriolis forces (of inertial nature) and not by the influx of solar radiation. Circulation in the atmospheres of other planets is organized by the same way. Found on the movement of cloud formations the period of rotation of the atmosphere depends on the latitude and have 16.2 hours near 33 ° SL and about 14 hours near 70 ° SL.
Median shell (mantle, ocean) Uranus
It is believed that under a gas cover there should be the ocean of water, ammonia and methane with the surface temperature of + 2 200 °C. This hypothetical liquid with high conductivity sometimes is called "the ocean of water-ammonia". Atmospheric pressure at the ocean surface must be 200 thousand atmospheres. Atmospheric pressure upon surfaces of the ocean has to make 200 thousand atm. Pressure in the lower part of the ocean on the border of "mantle" and kernel must reach 6 - 8 million atm. at a temperature of + 4 700 °C.
Stone (stone-iron) core of Uranus
It is considered that in a stone or rock-iron core in the center of Uranus the temperature should be 7 000 °C., pressure - 6 million atm. and more and the density should rise to 9 g/cm³.
We can speak about the internal structure of Uranus only on indirect evidences. The planet's mass was determined by the calculation based on astronomical observations of gravitational influence that Uranus has on its satellites. Uranus is larger than the Earth in 60 times on the volume and in 14.5 times only on the weight (8.67х1028 g). The average density of Uranus is 1.27 g/cm3 or a little more than water. The basic model is that in the center of Uranus there is a rocky core composed mainly of silicon oxide. Core diameter is the same or in 1.5 times larger than the Earth. Around it there is a shell of mix of water ice and rock. Even higher there is an ocean of liquid water and hydrocarbons (according to other data, hydrogen) and then - a powerful atmosphere.
Thermal radiation of Uranus
Thermal radiation of Uranus is very low, and the reason for this currently remains unknown. It is 0.042 ± 0.047 W/m², and this value is less than one from the Earth (~ 0.075 W/m²). Measurements in distant infrared part of the spectrum showed that Uranus radiates only 1.06 ± 0.08 energy from that receives from the Sun (i.e., excess heat is very low, almost non-existent).
There are two hypotheses that try to explain this phenomenon. In my opinion the first of them is very improbable. It claims that the protoplanet allegedly had faced Uranus during formation of Solar system and had caused a big inclination of rotation axis of Uranus, also it "had carried away" a part of initial temperature, having left the planet with already pre-exhausted reserves of heat. The second theory is much more probable. It says that in the atmosphere of Uranus has a certain layer that prevents the moving of the heat from the core to the upper layers and beyond the atmosphere in the same amounts in what the heat arrived in the atmosphere.
Magnetic field of Uranus
Uranus has extraordinary difficult and unique magnetosphere in Solar system which is filled with the plasma formed radiation belts, similar to the Earth's. At the level of a visible cloudy surface (with pressure about 0.5 bars) intensity of a dipolar field is close to the earthly one: 0.23 Oe.
Uranus has just four magnetic poles - two major and two minor. The magnetic axis is very strongly (on 60 °) deviated from the axis of rotation of Uranus. Its center does not coincide with the planet center and it is shifted aside on 1/3 radiuses of Uranus. Position of the poles of the dipole is back to earthly one, as at Saturn and Jupiter.
The magnetic field on Uranus varies greatly, ranging from the area to the area. In addition, there are considerable Uranus magnetic anomalies - a kind of weaker magnetic poles that further complicates a picture of the structure of the magnetosphere.
Measurements from "Voyager-2" showed that extended by the solar wind the tail of a magnetosphere of Uranus has a corkscrew form and extends not less than 10 million km. in the direction to an orbit of the following planet of Solar system – Neptune. The Earth magnetospheric tail length is about 5 million km.
Almost nothing is authentically known about structure of Uranus
These are the main data about Uranus from Wikipedia, GalSpace and other astronomical sites.
It is said in all sources of information that the given above model of the structure of Uranus is not only one. Based on observations from "Voyager-2" and telescopes from the Earth and Earth orbit we can build other models. For example, if a significant amount of hydrogen and rocky material is mixed in the ice mantle (liquid shell), then the total mass of ice (liquid) will be lower and respectively the full mass of hydrogen and rocky material will be bigger. There is a model according to which Uranus in general has no stone kernel. In that case Uranus has to look as a giant ball of snow "cereal" that consists of the liquid and ice mix and is wrapped in a gas cover.
Not less heated debate are going on about the ratio of the solid core, ice or water shell (mantle) and the gas cover (atmosphere).
"The currently available data do not allow us to determine which model is correct" - that's probably the most important conclusion.
There are equally important statement: "lack of excess heat radiation of the planet considerably complicates determination of temperature of its interior" and assumption after it: "however if we assume that the temperature conditions inside Uranus are close to the characteristic of other giant planets then existence of liquid water is possible, therefore, Uranus can be among the planets of the Solar system where life can exist."
On the basis of told above it is possible to claim that almost nothing is known about the internal structure of Uranus and it can be interpreted differently.
The most significant features of the structure of Uranus and their comparison with the structural features of the Earth in the Early Paleogene
In this regard I suggest to pay attention to some most essential features of internal structure and material composition of Uranus and to compare them with the features of the Earth structure of at the beginning of the Paleogene Period.
- The stone сore of Uranus has weight from 0.55 up to 3.7 masses of the Earth, that is it can be considered as shipped in liquid (or gaseous – see below) shell of the planet approximately equal to the mass of the Earth. Determination of radius of the solid stone or iron-stone core of Uranus at 20 - 30 (40) % of Uranus radius (i.e. from 5 000 to 9 000 km.) allows to suggest that the internal core of Uranus is a "planet" with the size of 0.8 – 1.5 Earth.
- The period of rotation of Uranus around its axis is 17.5 hours. According my hypothesis expressed in the book "The country of immortals, magicians and sorcerers. When there was "Golden Age" on the Earth? And in the work "Paleocene - Eocene. The landing of white gods on the Earth and there life in Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa)" and based on calculations of E. Belshesov and legends/images of the existence of giants in the past, the duration of days on the Earth in the Early Paleogene, as in the Cretaceous Period, could be only 8 - 9 hours. Duration of days on other giant planets is 9 hours and 55 minutes on Jupiter, 10 hours and 34 minutes on Saturn, 16 hours and 11 minutes on Neptune. Later, in my book "Earth before the Flood - the world of sorcerers and werewolves" and work "The Second World Era (66 - 34 million years ago)" I once again considered this issue and showed that in the Paleocene and Eocene the length, most likely, had some intermediate value between 9 and 24 hours.
- The equatorial plane of Uranus is tilted to the plane of its orbit at an angle of 97.86 ° - that is, the planet rotates "lying on its side." On the Earth the changing of position of rotation axis (at times quite significant - on 30 - 90 degrees) occurred regularly during global catastrophes. In the Paleocene and Eocene, the axis of rotation of the Earth had, most likely, almost vertical position (now such location of axis is noted on Jupiter and Venus). But at the turn of the Oligocene and Miocene (23 million years ago) and the Early and Middle Miocene (16 million years ago) it could be displaced already on 90 degrees. One time, trying to explain the existence of light and dark halves of the Earth in the Early Miocene I even imagined (and now I come back to this point of view) that Earth laid down sideways, like Uranus.
Such grandiose offset axis of rotation of the Earth and Uranus could happen only at collision with solids comparable on weight mass or at any similar processes. The model of structure of Uranus considered above with liquid (or effectively liquid) shell (mantle) 10 000 - 15 000 km thick hardly can explain such shift. Most likely, hit of celestial body in liquid or viscoplastic ice would be limited to formation of huge waves (diapirism) and emission in space of large amount of a material in the form of vapors, liquid or ice, and wouldn't lead to noticeable shift of the axis of the planet as so powerful layer of liquid would put out the fluctuations created by collision
- Uranus has a powerful magnetic field which should fully protect its internal part (liquid or air cover and kernel surface) from influence of solar and cosmic radiation. Its radiation belts and magnetic field values are close to the earthly ones.
- Uranus has a strong ice or water internal shell (mantle) which thickness, according to various estimates, is 10 000 - 15 000 km and mainly hydrogen-helium atmosphere (conditionally divided into troposphere and stratosphere) thick, according to various sources, 4 000 – 8 000 km; its atmospheric corona extends to 50,000 km. The lower part of the Uranus atmosphere (troposphere) with power about 350 km presumably consists of water clouds and clouds hydrosulphate of ammonium, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In the bottom of "troposphere" temperature of about + 40 + 50 ° C are assumed.
Unfortunately, we have no data on structure and composition of the two-layer atmosphere of the Earth 65 - 50 million years ago. Now the Earth's atmosphere extends to 2 000 – 3 000 km and the thickness of the troposphere is only 8 - 18 km. But the atmosphere, apparently has become such only at a boundary of the Early and Middle Miocene (16 million years ago). We can only guess what it was in the Early Paleogene.
If it was so, as spoken in the Vedas and the Old Testament and as D. Dillow, A. Sluijs and other researchers writes earlier water-steam shell was placed over the air cover, the power of which was unknown. D. Dillou estimates its capacity as the equivalent of 12 meter layer of liquid water, but it's just a guess. Power of water-steam cover could be much greater.
This seems to confirm the Aztec codes and other legends that during change of the Second and Third (34 million years ago), the Third and Fourth (23 million years ago) and the Fourth and Fifth (16 million years ago) world eras when there was a destruction of water-steam cover such a huge amount of water poured out from the sky that "the heavens were connected with the land," all people, animals and plants were drowned and the Earth was transformed into the ocean.
Uranus and Earth at the beginning of the Paleogene are twins, brothers?!
Thus, external similarity of the image of the Earth at the beginning of the Paleogene with photos of Uranus can hide behind something more. We can consider Uranus, along with other giant planets, as comparable by the size with the Earth solid stone or rather even, iron-stony planet. There are Uranus core shipped in liquid or, more possibly, air cover – so-called ice bark or mantle of Uranus above which the "water-steam" cover – the so-called atmosphere of Uranus lies. In its lower part with power about 350 km (conditionally named troposphere) it allegedly consists of water clouds (vapors and ice crystals), hydrosulphate of ammonium, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and methane. Above, probably, due to decomposition of water and other compounds of hydrogen by cosmic radiation the atmosphere is saturated with hydrogen which forms an atmospheric crown up to the heights of 50 000 km. Temperature of the thermosphere crown located at the heights of 6 000 (4 000) - 50 000 km is + 460 + 520 ° C. Since that is a mystery.
Processes of condensation of water occurring in atmosphere which probably contains a lot of water are considered as one of the most probable explanations of equality of temperature of the atmosphere at the poles and the equator, on the dark and light sides of Uranus. On the modern Earth condensation of moisture and precipitation have a little influence on the average density of the atmosphere and change it no more than to 2%. But for Uranus such changes can reach 50%. Then movements in very dense atmosphere of the planet become more similar to flows in the Earth’s oceans which are caused by changes of water salinity.
This hypothesis allows us to call the lower part of the gas shell (the so-called atmosphere) of Uranus a water-steam or water-ammonia-hydrogen sulfide-methane-steam cover and to compare it with the water-steam cover existed on the Earth in the Paleogene and the Early Neogene, but the structure of this cover, however, is not known.
In that case the middle part of Uranus (called a mantle, an ice or liquid cover) can represent the real atmosphere of Uranus which is similar to the atmosphere of the Earth in the Cretaceous and the beginning of the Paleogene Period. According to finds of air vials in amber and to theoretical calculations it was much more dense than the modern one. According E. Belshesov density Cretaceous atmosphere at the Earth surface was 6.5 atm. D. Dillow resulting from the settlement received several smaller values - density antediluvian atmosphere at the Earth's surface, according to him, was 2.2 atm. But that is the thickness for the intended water-vapor envelope equivalent to the 12th layer of liquid water. Uranus it appears significantly thicker. According to E. Belshesov, density of the Cretaceous atmosphere at the Earth’s surface was 6,5 atm. D. Dillow as a result of calculations received a little smaller values – density of the antediluvian atmosphere at the Earth surface, according to him, was 2.2 atm. But it is for the estimated thickness of the water-steam cover equivalent to 12 meters layer of liquid water. On Uranus it is apparently much thicker.
Existence of a thick air cover or the atmosphere in the central part of Uranus doesn't look impossible. Data on internal structure and material composition of Uranus are received only on the basis of theoretical calculations and assumptions, and researchers recognize that the most improbable discoveries are expected ahead.
Modified three-layer model of Uranus: core – air cover – water-steam cover, apparently, also easily can be proved theoretically, as well as classical model: core – ice mantle or water cover – atmosphere. For this purpose it is necessary only to redistribute masses (and, probably, also the sizes) – to increase the mass (size) of the central kernel (which in this case will be not stone, but iron-stony, as well as on the Earth), to increase density of the atmosphere and, probably, to increase density of the upper water-steam cover which will be similar to liquid – and to make the appropriate calculations.
There is one more circumstance which takes the offered model with the internal or central atmosphere more probable. It is the different speed of rotation of Uranus (actually solid core of Uranus) and its external gas cover (which called an atmosphere in standard model and called by me a water-steam cover). If the central part of Uranus was solid (ice), then it would be impossible. The observed difference in speeds of rotation of the internal kernel and the external part of Uranus is a little probable at a liquid central cover.
It is well visible on the example of Venus that there is to be an air cover between rotating with different speeds dense cloudy cover and surface of the planet.
Temperature of the internal or central air cover (atmosphere) of Uranus can remain almost invariable because of the greenhouse effect which for Uranus, most likely, adds up to reflection of heat let out from its subsoil (due to radiogenic heating by the kernel of internal planet - for example, potassium-40, and, as well as on the Earth, eruptions of volcanoes or thermal activity) from the interface of air cover and overlying water-steam cover air and the water-steam cover itself. The presence in water-steam cover of carbon dioxide and about 2% of methane which is more effective greenhouse gas by 20 times than carbon dioxide takes such model very probable.
Temperature of the atmosphere of Uranus can be equal to the temperature of the lower layer of its water-steam cover ("troposphere") which is defined in + 40 + 50 ° C. or, more likely, can be a little below it.
Some researchers suppose that there is a layer on Uranus which reflects the heat and well explains why Uranus, unlike Saturn and Jupiter, and, in a smaller measure, Neptune, almost doesn't radiate internal heat of the planet into space. The contents of methane in "atmosphere" of Saturn and Jupiter is much lower (respectively 0.4 and 0.3%), and of Neptune – is insignificant below (1.5%), however they assume more powerful internal sources of heat.
On the basis of told it is possible to assume that Uranus can be similar to the Earth at the beginning of the Paleogene when it was shrouded in a dense water-steam cover and its surface was a huge all-planetary greenhouse. Then temperatures between +25 + 30 ° C. were noted on the Earth. The same temperatures can be on the surface of Uranus. Anything, as though, wouldn't contradict this. And it means that on Uranus there can be a life and in the same proteinaceous form as on the Earth.
Higher speed of rotation of Uranus the existence of it in terms gravity (in its calculation cannot add weight to the water-vapor shell ("atmosphere"), regardless of the rotating planet) taller and heavy creatures. Higher speed of rotation of Uranus suggests the existence of more tall and heavy beings on it in the conditions of less gravity. At calculation of this gravity we should not add the weight of the water-steam cover ("atmosphere") which is rotating irrespective of the planet.
And if to interpolate further, now on Uranus there can be "the Golden Age" and being can live almost eternally because they are protected from the ultrabasic rigid space radiation by magnetosphere and water-steam cover!
Neptune, Saturn and Jupiter may be the same habitable planets (internal kernels of planets). Higher return of heat from them can indicate either much greater internal thermal activity of these planets or lower temperature on their surface. It is very curious that all these planets have a large number of satellites (only on Uranus there are 27) and rings. Probably, satellites and rings are necessary conditions for the existence of habitable planets at such stage of their development.'
I have no doubt that many astronomers and simply thinking readers will relate this article to the category of science fiction or fantasy. Well, I'm ready for this. In this case, however, I would like to hear on what objections will be based. I've not professionally engaged in astronomy, but everything written here seems to me very probable. Maybe I really do not take into account any incontestable evidence that "will give up as a bad job" my hypothesis.
But even if it also will occur, existence in the past of powerful water-steam cover over the atmosphere of the Earth can be considered as a fact in evidence (though nothing about it is written in textbooks). And only Uranus and other giant planets can be modern analogs of the Earth with such cover.
I don't exclude that many of you also will want to remind me that Uranus receives solar energy in 140 times less than the Earth and light in 400 times less than our planet. But let remember what I wrote in my book "Land of immortals, magicians and sorcerers. When was there "the Golden Age" on the Earth?" and my work "The Golden Age was in the Paleogene". In the Paleocene and Eocene epoch of the Paleogene Period, when there was the "golden age" on the Earth, not the sun but the whole sky was shining (from this the name "gods of heaven" has comes). And judging by Aztec legends and legends of Hopi Indians that after the destruction of the water-steam cover the Earth had descended from its orbit, twice overturned and the sun had appeared above it and started to warm many times stronger than before, it is quite probable that in the Early Paleogene the Earth was much farther from the Sun than now. There are hypotheses that its orbit could be placed between Mars and Jupiter and the Earth is no other than a shard of the legendary Phaeton.
Any even the most courageous hypotheses can turn into well reasoned scientific theories as soon as researchers will refuse the dogmatic prejudices (delusions) that do not allow them to think in a new way. Presently existing theory of the origin of the solar system, undoubtedly, is one of these misconceptions. It assumes formation of all planets from proto - planetary nebula (protoplanetary cloud) and their stay during 5 billion years on the same places. That did not happen. To understand this it is enough to read the ancient legends which originators knew about Earth and Universe structure much better, than we. All peoples of the world, for example, wrote that the Moon and the Sun in the form in what we see now appeared in the sky after a global catastrophe and the Flood which destroyed water-steam cover and had led to emergence of new Earth, sky and people (and here). According to my calculations based on comparison of geological and folklore data it occurred 16.5 million years ago. Before there was no Moon in the sky, the Earth consisted of light and dark halves and life of "people" could be up to 10 000 years.
Finally, the fact that in 1995 the Galileo lander found a lot of water, methane, hydrogen sulfide and other compounds in the atmosphere of Jupiter has allowed scientists to suggest that the atmosphere of this planet is rich with carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and, probably, oxygen. In an atmosphere layer with a pressure of 1 atm they assume the existence of water ice and liquid water. Below this level the atmosphere is opaque!
The top part of the atmospheres (thermospheres and crowns) of Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune is also heated to very high temperatures which can serve as additional peculiar "blankets" to protect planets from heat loss. As in the case with Uranus the mechanism of heating is unknown.
© A Koltypin, 2012
© P Oleksenko, 2014 (translation)
We, A. Koltypin the author of this work, and P.Oleksenko the translator of this work, give permission to use this for any purpose except prohibited by applicable law, on condition that our authorship and hyperlink to the site http://earthbeforeflood.com is given.
The section "Planets, catastrophes, life"
Read also my work "Life on Titan. What (kind) is it?" (in Russian) and my works "The most important catastrophe in the history of Earth during which mankind appeared. When it happened?", "Once again about the time of creation of the world and the biblical (Noachic) Flood. The amendments brought by geology and folklore", "Legends and hypotheses about a lunar rabbit, churning of the ocean, spinning up of the firmament (vault of heaven), origin of the Moon and connection of the Moon with death and immortality - the description of catastrophes at the boundaries between the Third and Fourth and the Fourth and Fifth world epochs, acquisition of modern appearance by Earth and emergence of the modern person - Homo Sapiens" (in Russian)